AskDefine | Define equivocation

Dictionary Definition

equivocation

Noun

1 a statement that is not literally false but that cleverly avoids an unpleasant truth [syn: evasion]
2 intentionally vague or ambiguous [syn: prevarication, evasiveness]
3 falsification by means of vague or ambiguous language [syn: tergiversation]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

c.1380, from aequus + vocare; via aequivocationem (nominative aequivocatio), from aequivocus; and equivocation

Pronunciation

Noun

  1. A logical fallacy resulting from the use of multiple meanings of a single expression.
  2. The use of expressions susceptible of a double signification, possibly intentionally and with the aim of misleading.

Extensive Definition

Equivocation is classified as both a formal and informal fallacy. It is the misleading use of a term with more than one meaning (by glossing over which meaning is intended at a particular time).
It is often confused with amphiboly. The two are similar but not identical. Both equivocation and amphiboly are fallacies arising from ambiguity. However, equivocation, is ambiguity arising from the misleading use of a word and amphiboly is ambiguity arising from misleading use of punctuation or syntax.

Examples

Equivocation is the use in a syllogism (a logical chain of reasoning) of a term several times, but giving the term a different meaning each time. For example:
A feather is light.
What is light cannot be dark.
Therefore, a feather cannot be dark.
In this use of equivocation, the word "light" is first used as the opposite of "heavy", but then used as a synonym of "bright" (the fallacy usually becomes obvious as soon as one tries to translate this argument into another language). Because the "middle term" of this syllogism is not one term, but two separate ones masquerading as one (all feathers are indeed "not heavy", but is not true that all feathers are "bright"), equivocation is actually a kind of the fallacy of four terms.
The fallacy of equivocation is often used with words that have a strong emotional content and many meanings. These meanings often coincide within proper context, but the fallacious arguer does a semantic shift, slowly changing the context as they go in such a way to achieve equivocation by treating distinct meanings of the word as equivalent.
In English language, one equivocation is with the word "man", which can mean both "member of species Homo sapiens" and "male member of species Homo sapiens". A well-known equivocation is
"Do women need to worry about man-eating sharks?"
where "man-eating" is taken as "devouring only male human beings".
A separate case of equivocation is metaphor:
All Jackasses have long ears
Karl is a jackass
Therefore, Karl has long ears
Here the equivocation is the metaphorical use of "jackass" to imply a stupid or obnoxious person instead of a male ass.
Margarine is better than nothing
Nothing is better than butter
Therefore margarine is better than butter
This equivocation exploits two different meanings of the word "nothing" to come to an apparent conclusion about the relative merits of two different things without actually making reference to any of their respective merits. In the first statement, "nothing" really means "dry bread" (such that the sentence means "it is preferable to have margarine [on bread] than nothing at all"), whereas in the second, it means, literally, "no thing" (so the sentence means "there exists no thing that is better than butter").

Specific types of equivocation fallacies

See main articles: False attribution, Fallacy of quoting out of context, Loki's Wager, No true Scotsman, Shifting ground fallacy.

References

  • F.L. Huntley. "Some Notes on Equivocation: Comment", PMLA: Publications of the Modern Language Association of America Vol. 81, No 1, (March 1966), p.146.
  • A.E. Malloch. "Some Notes on Equivocation", PMLA: Publications of the Modern Language Association of America'' Vol. 81, No 1, (March 1966), pp 145–146.
equivocation in German: Äquivokation
equivocation in Hebrew: שפה מעורפלת
equivocation in Hungarian: Ekvivokáció
equivocation in Norwegian: Ekvivokasjon
equivocation in Polish: Ekwiwokacja
equivocation in Swedish: Ekvivokation
equivocation in Modern Greek (1453-): Αμφισημία

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

ambiguity, ambivalence, amphibology, antinomy, apparent soundness, avoidance, avoiding reaction, bickering, boggling, captiousness, casuistry, caviling, chicane, chicanery, circularity, circumvention, coloring, confabulation, counterword, defense mechanism, disingenuousness, distortion, dodge, dodging, double, double entendre, duck, elusion, elusiveness, equivocal, equivocality, equivocalness, equivoque, escape, evasion, evasive action, evasive reasoning, evasiveness, exaggeration, fallaciousness, fallacy, false coloring, false swearing, falsification, falsifying, fencing, fluctuation, forbearance, forestalling, forestallment, getting around, hairsplitting, hedging, insincerity, irony, jesuitism, jesuitry, jink, logic-chopping, lying, misapplication, miscoloring, misconstruction, misrepresentation, misstatement, mystification, neutrality, nit-picking, nonintervention, noninvolvement, obfuscation, obscurantism, oscillation, oversubtlety, oxymoron, paltering, paradox, parrying, pendulation, perjury, perversion, pettifoggery, philosophism, plausibility, plausibleness, polysemant, portmanteau word, prevarication, prevention, pun, pussyfooting, quibbling, rationalization, refraining, self-contradiction, shifting, shilly-shally, shilly-shallying, shuffle, shuffling, shunning, shunting off, shy, sidestep, sidestepping, sidetracking, slip, sophism, sophistical reasoning, sophistication, sophistry, special pleading, speciosity, specious reasoning, speciousness, squinting construction, straining, subterfuge, subtlety, suppressio veri, tergiversation, the runaround, trichoschistism, vacillation, vicious circle, vicious reasoning, wavering, weasel word, weasel words, wobbling, zigzag
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